It is vital that businesses of all sizes and in all industries find ways to be greener in 2021. Environmental damage is an enormous issue right now, and consumers are becoming increasingly eco-conscious, so becoming greener is important for reducing your impact as well as improving your brand reputation and attracting people to your business. On top of this, you should find that becoming greener could also help to lower your operating costs too. With all of this in mind, read on for a few of the best ways that you can make your business greener in 2021 and beyond.
- Energy-Efficient Equipment
One of the best ways to reduce your impact as well as lower your costs is to switch to energy-efficient equipment. This will be at a cost upfront, but you can make big savings over the long-term, plus it will not negatively affect your daily operation in any way, so it is a win-win situation.
- Remote Work
There were clear signs of the environment healing itself when most of the world switched to remote work in 2020, plus this can bring a range of benefits to both staff and the business, so it should certainly be considered moving forward. It has environmental benefits because it means that there are fewer cars on the road as a result of your business, plus employees will not be consuming energy at your company.
- Cycle To Work Scheme
Following this point, when staff do come into work, you should encourage the cycle to work tax scheme with Cycle Solutions. This is a scheme that helps your business to reduce its NI contributions by 13.8% of the value of the equipment supplied while employees benefit from paying less for a new bike and cycling equipment. When your employees are cycling into work instead of driving, it will make your business much greener, keeps your employees in good shape, and could help to lift morale amongst a range of other benefits.
- Paperless Office
Another highly effective way to make your business greener while reducing your costs is to become a paperless office. This will eliminate the need for both paper and printing, plus you also have the benefits of lower costs, more storage space, and documents being much easier to find when you have a digital filing system in place.
- Use Green Suppliers
It is also important to look at the businesses that you work with and to make sure that the supply chain is also green. It is when this happens that real change can be seen, and your reputation as a green company will shine through, especially if you are also using local suppliers as a way to limit transport and to support the local economy.
As you can see, there are lots of effective ways for a business to become greener, and this can bring a range of benefits. Now is the time for action, and businesses will be able to improve their reputation and lower costs when they take action to reduce their environmental impact.
None of us wishes to fail in the businesses we launch. Our ultimate goal of starting a business is success and prosperity. It does not matter how long we have been in the industry, whether we are beginning a new venture or have been a business owner for decades. We are all brought together by a strong desire to succeed in our businesses and the opportunities available.
For the last decade, I have worked closely with several small business owners. I learned that there are particular principles that they abide by which make great contribution to their success. These principles are the driving forces in business that can make or break our ventures. Various details vary from one industry to the other, or from one business owner to another. The following seven principle elements will be very significant to all industries.
To attain success, we need to have the right team working with us in our businesses. Everything in the business will always run smoothly and comfortably when everything is right at the leadership level. As business owners, we should strive to have the best leadership skills and styles. This will make us become good leaders in our businesses. If we don't have the leadership skills, the adverse effects will trickle down and be experienced throughout our businesses. This will definitely have a notable impact on the company and our profits as well.
In a business, marketing is considered one of the most critical aspects. It is why people look to so many methods, through companies like First Page Digital Hong Kong or through their own marketing departments. Currently, the internet is one of the most incredible resources we have. We should strive to always have well-designed websites that will help us to reach out to our target clients and generate more sales for our business worldwide with ease and inexpensively. We should ensure we have a top search engine rank, which will vastly improve our local deals.
We all know that time is money. For our ventures to be successful, we must maximize our time and focus on the right things. I have seen several small business owners striving to embrace new technology, which has often been very rewarding. I would advise any business owners looking to adopt any technology, such as incorporating software that reduces administrative work and starts using better equipment. This will significantly help your business to stay ahead of the game and enable things to run smoothly.
In any business, the customer is an essential factor. The key to a successful business is the ability to have loyal existing customers. To turn repeat customers into loyal customers, we need to look after their needs and wants. We can resolve this by setting up a 24/7 customer care line to ensure all their queries and complaints are solved promptly. Online, several guides will help us learn how to retain and attract new customers.
Even if we have the best products in the market, our business may experience a downward spiral if we fail to acknowledge our competitors. This is in terms of pricing and improving our product to avoid customers going for substitute products. We also need to understand the industry and the key players in the market to plan our business strategies effectively. This will make our business stand out from the rest, and we can be assured of success.
We need to understand how successful businesses operate and run their businesses. This could be from the departments' primary structure within the business, to the personnel and how to manage various projects. Through interactions with several business owners, I have learned to effectively and efficiently run a business. We need to know everything about the organizational structures and design of the specific industries we are in.
When starting a business, we need to have an excellent financial base. It is also vital to ensure that our businesses have a positive cash flow as it grows and develops. The business will always need adequate finances to pay the employees, vendors, and bills to ensure its sustainability. When our businesses can sustain themselves, it will be effortless for us to manage the cash flow wisely and, in return, get profits.
Typically the challenge has been to get up from your desk or off your couch, strap on a pair of shoes, and go for a jog. That was what we considered to be that tough form of exercise that everyone knew was important, but no one wanted to do.
Although as we spend more and more time online, staring at screens and considering our virtual spaces, getting a workout done to our physical selves might look to be the easier one. We don’t even consider the fact that we have to take care of our mental health while we were clicking and tapping our phones and laptops to no end.
Too Much of Anything Is Not Good
Getting into a good workout routine is key, and once you are able to do so, you should be applauded, but every expert and trainer will tell you that you shouldn’t do intense workouts every day. Your body needs to take time off. You are pulling and flexing your muscles as you exercise, and these same muscles need to heal and repair themselves to grow stronger. That’s not to say that you should lay in bed all morning after a previous day of working out (in fact, you should always be stretching every day), but balancing your time properly is essential. You can get tired of anything, even having a wild night in London having someone escort you to the restaurants and clubs that get top reviews.
This is especially true with the internet. Of course, it is a good thing that we can be so connected so easily at all times, no matter where we all are in the world. It means friends can always chat, work can always get done quicker, every bit of information can be shared, and great fun can be had. But always having it close to you (with your mobile in your pocket) is certainly not the best way to go about it. Getting too comfortable with this level of immediacy will affect your expectations for everything else in life. It’s amazing that you can order a product and have the package arrive on your doorstep the next day, that you can stream almost any tv or movie or play any video game right away, but it makes engaging with ‘reality’ that much more difficult and dispiriting.
You think exercising every day is a good thing until you injure yourself doing it, and likewise, you think spending every waking moment online is good until you make a post you regret, order something you didn’t really want, or maybe trust someone you shouldn’t have and get scammed or hurt.
Take Regular Breaks
‘Moderation is the key’ is a paraphrasing of the general attitude of Greek philosopher Aristotle. It may be several thousand years old, but it is more relevant than ever. Work may demand that you be available to answer email throughout the day, and it’s become normal that we ‘escape’ this grind by doom scrolling through our social media news feeds, but regardless of what we are looking at, the fact that we are looking at all is the problem.
That’s why non-screen activities should be embraced, whether it be reading a book made out of paper or puzzle-making or knitting, or going outside for work and yes, exercising or kicking a ball around. Making an ironclad schedule might not be possible, but try to set aside one hour a day of not using the internet. At first, you could sneak that hour into other activities, like some daily chores or even cooking (which would mean not listening to podcasts while vacuuming or quickly rushing to double-check the recipe!).
Just as plenty of parents are able to put ‘locks’ on their kids’ electronic devices to make sure they don’t spend all day with them, have a friend or loved one do the same for you, putting a password on your mobile for a certain hour or two of the day. One of the best ways to do this is to cordon off areas of your home and call them ‘no-phone zones’. Have certain rooms not be allowed to have a phone or computer in it for part of the morning, evening, or afternoon.
Keeping a Positive Attitude
Saying that 2020 was a lousy year is putting it mildly, and it was too easy to find negative and dispiriting news whenever you started to check any news, sports, or entertainment-focused apps. The fact that we all were going through the same thing is slightly heartening, but that just meant going to friends’ social media pages was the same thing over and over, because either nothing different happened, or something terrible did.
Doom-scrolling is the term given to just going through newsfeeds and seeing all the bad news over and over, with little variation. It’s easy to get sucked into reading people snapping at each other and posting memes about it, because seeing other people ‘work out’ their problems can help you make you temporarily forget yours. But that doesn’t mean it’s good for us, or for how you feel about your own mental health.
Part of getting past this is certainly putting the mobile or laptop down, but it should definitely be acknowledged that the internet has some solutions for this as well. It’s good to find articles that proclaim that social media use can certainly be a net positive for mental health, but this always comes with some caveats.
You have to be the one to decide not to post a snide remark. You have to be the one to take a moment and consider that maybe the person misinterpreted your comment and that you might be misinterpreting theirs. It sounds silly to think that after almost three decades of the internet being part of our lives that we all can’t detect sarcasm, but there’s not much body language or vocal inflections to interpret in a message. Giving people the benefit of the doubt can definitely make you happier.
Going on a hiking trip without having a map can be tough, and Forex trading is like that. We may feel overwhelmed if we do not have a plan from the beginning. To survive in the FX market, we need to use a few essential tools, but without proper planning, it may prove as impossible to utilize those tools to get the best success. Experts believe that perfect planning helps them to execute their action plans easily. Today, we will discuss the steps to take to build a great trading plan.
Without a well-defined plan number of trades may seem astonishing, but in reality, most beginners lose their investment without keeping an actual blueprint. Some of them choose to close their trading account. In this article, we will show the beginners how they can save their accounts by keeping to robust plans.
Steps to take for building a trading plan:
Before buying financial instruments, we have to estimate risk to reward ratio because it may keep a great impact on our strategy and help us to predict the future market condition. According to professionals, the ideal risk to reward ratio is 1:3. This indicates that against 3 dollars of profit, we may take it 1 dollar of loss and not more than that. Experts gauge their potential risk before executing trades and get a good result later.
According to risk-taking, traders can be divided into two categories, “risk averse” and “risk tolerant” investors. Risk-averse investors hate to take a large of it and always aim for a small profit so that the loss can be under their control. We should keep in mind that the higher that will be the greater the loss can be. Its aversion wants to grow their account steadily and slowly. Make sure you open a trading account with a high end broker like Saxo. By choosing such a professional broker, you can easily trade commodities in the United Kingdom. But make sure you follow the basic rules.
Risk-tolerant investors are totally opposite to the traders of its aversion, and they are not frightened to take aggressive steps to ensure their trading success. The master investor assesses its level, and even with the higher possibility of loss, they take the greater care with it. Beginners may take help of online tests to assess their risk tolerance level.
2.Keeping a trading journal
Journal works as the indispensable part of the Forex trading, and without having one can, we may become the victim of data loss. Using a journal, we can identify our previous actions regarding the trades and learn from the mistakes. This also helps to sharpen our strategies for upcoming opportunities.
Experts keep a trading journal always which help them to note down the important happenings and take decision based on that. Keeping a journal helps an investor to go through all the trades that he had executed recently based on weeks or months. Regular journal reviews help us to get the answers about specific patterns of losses and trends in the market.
3.Identifying the market environment
The market situation changes most of the time based on the uptrends, downtrends, or sideways. The environment changes based on the current threat sentiment, and each environment has certain characteristics that must be observed before buying financial instruments. For instance, technical indicators may work well in the ranging market for the oversold and overbought levels, but it can also create a great number of signals which may prove as fake. Another thing to keep in mind that low-yielding assets cannot outperform high-yielding assets when the market risky and volatile.
These are the crucial steps which play a significant role in building a perfect plan which may help us gain success in FX. Beginners can take help from the experts and ask them to show their written action plans, which can be supportive of beginners making a plan.
When an employee launches a set of accusations against your company, you need to make sure that you are able to approach them in the right way. There is a right way and several wrong ways to handle interruptions to business as usual, and you need to make sure you take a careful and measured approach to protect yourself while you reach a solution with the aggrieved party.
Find an Employment Lawyer
Since these accusations are coming from an employee, your best bet for resolution would be to reach out to an employment lawyer for the best way to proceed. Make sure you speak to lawyers with plenty of experience in this area, such as the Springhouse solicitors, as soon as you can. This means that you are going to be able to get the advice you need on how to proceed in a way that protects your business in the short- and long-term.
Make sure you follow any advice that they give you as soon as you can. They are the experts, and they will know how to best protect you should anything go wrong. You need to make sure that you are prepared to work with them and not fight against their suggestions, as they will be key in helping you get to a resolution for the issue.
Having these accusations thrown to you is always going to be hurtful and can provoke some strong emotions from you. You need to make sure that you keep a calm mind and do not lash out in anger as this could make the situation even worse than it already is. Instead, you need to make sure that you are prepared to go into the proceedings with a level head and a willingness to work towards an outcome that suits both parties.
If your solicitor agrees to it, it might be a good idea to reach out to the accuser and open a line of conversation. There are many productive conversations that can be had here if you are willing to have them.
Prepare a Statement
If the employee has gone to the media with the accusations, there might be an expectation for you to produce a response of some sorts. You need to take this as an opportunity to acknowledge the events and say that you are responding to them.
Work with your solicitor to prepare a short statement about your position on the matter.
Though you might not be prepared to admit or deny any accusations, you can acknowledge that they have been made, and that you are willing to work towards some sort of resolution. This can then be sent out if any enquiries are put to you.
Though it can be a difficult time for the company when accusations appear, there are still plenty of things you can do to protect yourselves and begin to work towards the resolution of the conflict. Remember to get the solicitors onboard as soon as possible, and make sure every move you make is calm and measured.
If you are a savvy entrepreneur with an extraordinary idea, getting a startup running may feel quite overwhelming. However, the rewards will be well worth it in the end. Launching a brand is an inspiring journey that most entrepreneurs live for, although, several challenges can be initially demotivating. For this reason, you will need to evaluate all the basics of starting a business. As your main focus won’t just be on your products or services, the following essential financial tips will keep your business running while you find ways to implement notable growth along the way.
Payroll And Business Tax
You probably already know you will need to register your business for tax requirements to ensure you are compliant right from the start. However, you may not have considered the details of payroll and how crucial it is for business financial affairs. You will need to learn how to do payroll UK and uncover the specifics according to your region. You will need to be registered as an employer and outline the basics of the pay as you earn scheme for your employees, even if you have only employed one person.
Cash Flow Management
One of the most common reasons startups fail is cash flow issues that could have been avoided. Cash flow issues can quickly snowball into frustrating and stressful concerns that can ultimately have your business shut its doors. You should know how every cent of your businesses funds is spent and where it comes from. Monitoring cash flow means being aware of your financial situation. You will therefore be able to make changes to expenses or other spends that can keep your business afloat during trying times. To best manage cash flow, you should craft a detailed budget and stick to it strictly.
Limit Fixed Expenses
You may feel inclined to go even a little bit overboard in the beginning while launching your brand, although this will be a notable mistake that may cost you dearly later on. Rather than overspending, in the beginning, you should make an active effort to limit all fixed expenses to the bare minimums. Limiting fixed costs means you will be less likely to have to downscale your business in the future. Downscaling might be considered an effort to keep the lights on, although the details of restructuring a business often illuminate significant loss in the process.
Outsourcing To Save Costs
Outsourcing is one of the most money-savvy moves business owners can make. While startups and smaller-scale businesses are tasked with running and growing with only minimal funds, outsourcing is the solution to implement growth. This is because outsourcing workflows from entire departments can help you access industry experts for a fraction of the cost when compared to average salaries of expert employees. You can outsource departments from marketing to financials and even human resources. This means your business can ultimately function with far fewer employees, drastically reducing your overall spend on wages.
Having a caravan on your drive, in your garage, or parked in a secure location, is your ticket out into the countryside for a cheap and cheerful holiday. With the whole of the UK and thousands of scenic destinations on your doorstep, hitching up your caravan for a quick getaway is one of the most satisfying ways to get a break from home - especially after having spent so long cooped up indoors during the pandemic. In this piece, we look at how you can keep your caravan in pristine working condition for the trips you’ll take in the future.
Outer Caravan Care
The outside of your caravan might look like a robust bubble, but there are plenty of seals and joins through which water might leak over time - especially if your caravan is exposed to the elements month on month. Older caravans are more likely to spring leaks, and to gather mould, than newer models - and you should take particular care, if your caravan is ageing, to maintain the outside of your little holiday haven.
You can do this by taking a survey of your caravan every couple of months. Where can you see moisture leaking into the inside of your caravan, and which part of the bodywork do you believe this is coming from? Use traditional leak-blocking material to help you fix these leaks, and prevent damp and other issues developing inside your caravan.
Inside Your Caravan
Damp is one of the biggest issues reported by caravan owners when they choose to take their caravan out for a short holiday. It’s no fun whatsoever to arrive at your destination, only to find that your caravan is damp, cold and clammy. Especially in the winter, this can become an almost unbearable feature of the interior of your caravan.
To avoid damp, leaks, mould, and smells in the interior of your caravan, it’s well worth reading this expert piece on 7 Common Caravan Maintenance Mistakes and How to Avoid Them. It’s recommended that you perform regular maintenance on your caravan, including on the interior, to avoid larger and more expensive problems down the line.
As your caravan doesn’t have a motor - although motorhomes do, and require you to diligently maintain them in order to be able to take them on the road - you won’t need to engage in work on an engine. But you still have two or three important mechanical parts, including the axle and wheels, the lights, and the tow bar that you use to attach it to your car, to look after.
All of these features require timely checking in order to avoid damage on the road, or faults that spiral into major problems if you fail to deal with them in time. As a minimum, before you head away on holiday with your caravan, you should check the lights, the tyre pressure, and the tow bar - ensuring they’re all safe and legal for use on Britain’s many thousands of roads.
Take care of your caravan throughout the year so as to keep it ready for last-minute getaways and longer, UK-wide holidays in the future. You’ll thank yourself for putting in a little effort.
Thanks to modern technology, your windows can be much more than just holes in the wall. With benefits ranging from enhanced resistance to intrusion, sound control, energy efficiency and many more, modern windows will enhance your comfort quite significantly.
If you are contemplating a window replacement, this might be a great idea, as your old windows may be holding your house back from its true potential. Here are the benefits to be gained from a window replacement.
1.Increased Home Value
While installing new windows will come at some cost, this cost will easily be compensated for by a considerable increase in the value of the house. Additionally, many buyers have been known to stall or walk away from a purchase once it becomes clear that a home has not been fitted with modern windows.
2.Better All-Round Security and Safety
The modern window provides the best of security features – they open easily to let you out in the case of an emergency, and they shut securely to keep intruders out.
3.Dust and Allergen Control
Modern windows sometimes have blinds and shades between the glass, which are effective at helping to keep out dust and allergens. This is particularly useful for people who suffer from allergic reactions such as hay fever. These windows are also safer for young children, as there are no dangling cords to potentially endanger them.
4.Improved Energy Efficiency
Modern windows will help you optimise your energy consumption by improving temperature management. This will save you a little extra expenditure on bills, and will help ensure that your air conditioner/heater enjoys a longer lifespan. For more information on how windows can help improve energy efficiency, contact expert window installers Wombourne Windows, who will be happy to help.
Noise can be annoying, and you probably don’t want to have to put up with it after a hard day at work, or elsewhere. Thankfully, modern windows come with noise-cancelling features such as insulating frames and triple-pane glass, which will help keep out the noise and will help preserve your peace of mind.
6.Enhanced Kerb Appeal
Windows have a potentially powerful effect on any house, when used in the right way. One of the most important ways in which windows can help improve the quality of your home is by providing optimal amounts of natural lighting. This beautifying effect of new windows extends both to the interior and exterior of the house, therefore increasing its kerb appeal. As noted previously, if you’re looking to sell, this will drive the value of your house up, and even if you are not selling, you will enjoy the comfort provided by a significantly better-looking property.
For busy people, low-maintenance windows are important to have. Fortunately, most modern windows do not require an extensive cleaning routine, and with features such as between-the-glass blinds, you will need to do minimal amounts of dusting and other cleaning.
New windows can significantly improve the value of a house, provide optimal amounts of natural lighting, make it safer and more secure to live in, provide better temperature, increase its kerb appeal, require much less in terms of maintenance and provide other benefits. Though they will require a higher financial outlay initially, this will likely prove to be well worth it in the long term.
Home offices are very common nowadays and a lot of people love the idea of working from home. A designated space in your home for being productive is a very good idea. But where to begin? How do you know what kind of room, what kind of decor, what supplies you will need to make a home office suitable for you? Well, to find out how to build the perfect productive space for your home, keep on reading.
1. Well Lit Room
Wherever you are working, the light in the room should be sufficient. Your home office should be bright and should have a lot of space for natural light to come in. While deciding on which room should be your home office, you should definitely keep the lighting in mind. The room should be naturally well lit with lots of room for cross ventilation of air. The room shouldn’t feel too stuffy, otherwise you will find it difficult to work in this room.
2. Have The Office Essentials
If you are a stationary enthusiast, then this will be your favorite part. Head to your nearest office supply stores and stock up on all of the office essentials. These will mostly include things like papers, notepads, pens, sticky notes, journals, binders, etc. Also, having a desktop computer in the office is a good idea. Making your room look like an office will increase your productivity, so having all of the essentials which complete a conventional office will make you work easily and efficiently.
3. Wooden Floors
Wooden floors are the perfect addition to a home office. In most offices, laminate or vinyl flooring is used, but wooden floors are the perfect liaison between feeling at home and working in a professional space. The look of wood is classic yet stylish. It adds a lot of character to the room and it completes it beautifully. Wooden flooring looks very minimal and professional, making them perfect for your home office. You can either go for hardwood floors or engineered hardwood flooring. Both will look beautiful, in fact, engineered hardwood is more durable and reliable than ordinary wooden floors. These floors are made to last for a long time.
4. Organized Room
Your office should be organized at all times, so you don’t fall into a deep pit of finding lost papers, when you need them the most. So, having all of your important papers in labeled binders and folders is a great way to stay organized and having everything you need in one place. This will save you a lot of time in the future. You will know exactly where everything is.
The dining table is the heart of a home. And, if you’re looking to create a unique space where the people you care about will love to gather and connect, then you need Adventures in Furniture.
Designed with flexible living in mind, our extending dining tables can be expanded for family gatherings and dinner parties, or folded away for a more intimate dining experience. What’s more, with a wealth of styles, sizes, materials and colour options, all our extendable dining tables can be tailored to your tastes, lifestyle and space.
Built with the highest-quality craftsmanship and passionate about long-term furniture rather than cheap disposable pieces, your extendable dining table will be made to last generations. And, with ethically sourced materials and considered, sustainable design at the heart of everything we do, your furniture is better for the environment too.
Ready to be inspired?
The Bianco table is a gorgeous design, suitable for any contemporary interior. With clean lines and a minimalist vibe, the table features splayed, tapered legs and comes in a variety of sizes. The solid wood range also has a selection of finishes, from a very pale white-washed oak to an exquisite oiled black walnut. Beautiful Fenix tabletop options are also available.
The extending Bianco dining table folds out easily and requires no extra storage. Ideal for both everyday use and special occasions, the table is perfect for trend-setters seeking that sought-after Scandi style.
The Zurich table design boasts slender, rounded and tapered legs that fit flush to the corners. Adding extra seats to this extending table is simple. The leg sections simply roll out to reveal internally stored extension leaves which can be opened as needed. So, the Zurich is as functional as it is stunning.
Available in lavish walnut and rich oak, the Zurich can also be made with a Fenix top for a real statement piece that is perfect for the rough and tumble of energetic dinner parties and everyday life.
Our Mason extendable tables are strong, hard and durable. With chunky round and straight leg options, the Mason looks robust and is perfect for people who value timeless, classic design. With a hidden butterfly mechanism, simply pull the legs towards you and effortlessly extend to seat more people.
Available in a range of sizes, finishes, materials and colour options – including natural timber, ingenious Fenix, and super-stylish ceramic - our sophisticated Mason table can be tailored to your exact requirements. And it’s built to stand up to the reality of daily life, with completely scratch-proof and easy to clean options available.
The extendable Tate table takes modern simplicity to the next level. With clean lines and no unnecessary fuss, the Tate is both authentic and super-stylish.
Tate tabletops are available in warm woods and Fenix (the very latest nanotech matt material for easy cleaning). And the legs come in a stunning selection of metals, including rusted steel and graphite for a striking stripped-back industrial look.
Made from 100% solid wood with filled knots, the Flow extending table has a 24mm oak top. Available in natural ‘live’ or straight edge options, the Flow is super-contemporary and super-stylish.
The striking extendable Flow table showcases legs that combine oak and black powder coated metal, with straight and U-shape options available. So, for a unique design feature that is sure to wow, the Flow has what it takes.
The very best extending dining tables. Only from Adventures in Furniture
Why buy pre-designed when you can create a bespoke dining table that will stand out and perfectly fit into your home?
At Adventures in Furniture, our beautiful, extendable dining tables are as distinct as you are. And. once we have helped you to create the perfect piece for you, we’ll get it delivered and installed in your home in a matter of weeks.
It really is that easy.